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Sulfur Metabolizing

Sulfur Metabolizing

Sulfolobus solfataricus P2

Sulfolobus is a genus of microorganism in the family Sulfolobaceae. It belongs to the archea domain. Sulfolobus species grow in volcanic springs with optimal growth occurring at pH 2-3 and temperatures of 75-80 °C, making them acidophiles and thermophiles respectively. Sulfolobus cells are irregularly shaped and flagellar. Species of Sulfolobus are generally named after the location from which they were first isolated, e.g. Sulfolobus solfataricus was first isolated in the Solfatara (volcano). Other species can be found throughout the world in areas of volcanic or geothermal activity, such as geological formations called mud pots, which are also known as solfatare (plural of solfatara).

Sulfolobus proteins are of interest for biotechnology and industrial use due to their thermostable nature. One application is the creation of artificial derivatives from S. acidocaldarius proteins, named affitins. Intracellular proteins are not necessarily stable at low pH however, as Sulfolobus species maintain a significant pH gradient across the outer membrane. Sulfolobales are metabolically dependent on sulfur: heterotrophic or autotrophic, their energy comes from the oxidation of sulfur and/or cellular respiration in which sulfur acts as the final electron acceptor. For example, S. tokodaii is known to oxidize hydrogen sulfide to sulfate intracellularly.

[Content from Wikipedia]

Sulfolobus solfataricus has been found in different areas including Yellowstone National Park, Mount St. Helens, Iceland, Italy, and Russia to name a few. Sulfolobus is located almost wherever there is volcanic activity. They strive in environments where the temperature is about 80oC with a pH at about 3 and sulfur present.

[Content from MicrobeWiki]

Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough

Desulfovibrio is a rod-shaped anaerobic bacterium with a 3 Mbp genome. Desulfovibrio is known for its flexibility in the variety of electron acceptors it utilizes including sulfate, sulfur, nitrate, and nitrite among others. Species of Desulfovibrio have long been of interest as bioremediators, with the ability to reduce several toxic metals such as uranium (VI), chromium (VI) and iron (III).